- issuing stock certificates
- holding meetings
- electing officers
- documenting loans and other transactions
Failure to observe formalities may indicate an impermissible intermixture of affairs or may indicate the use of a corporation as a "mere instrumentality." Usually, when corporate formalities are found to have been ignored, the courts require at least one other independent ground for piercing the corporate veil.
- brunswick corp. v. waxman
- scott graphics inc. v. mahaney